Literature Survey

Usually, before starting the construction of a building, proper calculations have to be done to calculate the compression of soil. At present, these calculations are done manually using calculators, which is highly time consuming. Many researchers have done researches regarding this problem and they are described within this section.

One of the main components of the project was calculating the subsidence. And soil compaction is the most important factor that determines the subsidence value of a land. The definition of soil compaction is - “Compaction is densification of soil by removing air using mechanical equipment. The degree of compaction is measured by its dry unit weight”. Back in 1980, W. E. Larson recognized that “Compression curves determined for soils at different water contents were approximately parallel to each other over the range of initial pore water potentials from −0.05 to −1.0 bar.[9]” They have used some methods to get the results, “determined on 36 world agricultural soil samples at given water content were linear over the range of stresses from about 1 to 10 kg cm−2.[9]”

Another soil compression research, done in 2011, states that, “Simulated soil compression and piling, vehicles leaving tire traces spinning, skidding and even sinking. This first step is the simulation of the soil object system at a discretization scale that can be termed "intermediate". A subsequent step consists of the simulation of a finer physical soil model in order to account for smaller scale dynamic phenomena.[10]”

Another section the project is focusing on is, Interactivity. According to J. F. Jensen, “In summary, it can be said that while ‘interaction’ in the sociological sense refers to a reciprocal relationship between two or more people, and in the informatic sense refers to the relationship between people and machines (but not communication between people mediated by machines), in communication studies it refers, among other things, to the relationship between the text and the reader, but also to reciprocal human actions and communication associated with the use of media as well as (para-social) interaction via a medium.[11]”

Interactivity can also be defined as “Computer program, device, game, etc., that (in response to a user's action or request) presents choices (paths) depending on where in the program the user initiated the action. By following different choices, the user can accordingly control or change the action of the device or outcome of a game or program.” There are also some researches regarding interactivity. In 1998, University of Kansas Lawrence has conducted a research which says “The current paradigm evaluates speech recognition technology in terms of word recognition accuracy on large vocabulary transcription tasks, such as telephone conversations or media broadcasts.[12]”And they have introduced a solution for that problem, “more productive and more accessible paradigm for spoken language research, in which research advances are evaluated in the context of interactive systems that allow people to perform useful tasks, such as accessing information from the World Wide Web, while driving a car.[13]”

3D designing is another aspect of Konstructor. The definition of 3D is “Three-dimensional model that displays a picture or item in a form that appears to be physically present with a designated structure. Essentially, it allows items that appeared flat to the human eye to be display in a form that allows for various dimensions to be represented. These dimensions include width, depth, and height” A number of researches regarding 3D designing have already been conducted. In 1997, the Department of Computer Science and Graduate School of Architecture have done a research which says “We introduce an application that presents information about our university's campus, using a head-tracked, see-through, head-worn, 3D display, and an untracked, opaque, hand-held, 2D display with stylus and track pad. We provide an illustrated explanation of how our prototype is used, and describe our rationale behind designing its software infrastructure and selecting the hardware on which it runs.[14]” Another research in Sientific.net says “face recognition system based on 3D head modeling that is able to tolerate facial rotation angles was constructed by leveraging the Open source graphic library (OpenGL) framework.[15]”

The project then features a Virtual Environment. The definition of virtual environment is “a computer-generated, three-dimensional representation of a setting in which the user of the technology perceives themselves to be and within which interaction takes place”. In 1997, the Northeastern University Boston has conducted a research project. They have produced a virtual driver simulator and they say “when the lead driver in a car-following situation suddenly brakes, the following car driver needs to respond as quickly as possible to avoid a collision. Such driving paradigms suggest that broadcasting and dead-reckoning may be applicable only if the human controlled actors are further apart than some delta time value.[16]” Another research was conducted in freepatentsonline.com and it says “The system consists of a server and client architecture. Within this architecture, the server or controller plays a "master" role, puffing, storing, and delivering media content from a plurality of client sources. The master server or controller manipulates the storage and delivery of these streams through an intelligent database and programming architecture.[16]”

Above are some of the key previous researches related to this project. There are also some projects that are somewhat similar to Konstructor, but do not present the same outcome.

In 2002, Fuzhou University has conducted a similar project. They have done a virtual plant project which says “The purpose of the software package is to provide an integrated software solution to realistic plant modeling, real-time scene rendering, growth simulation and applications at different scales from individual, stand (population, community) to landscape. We are used to build individual plant model. Para Tree combines geometric modeling and parameterized modeling.[17]” The most important thing is that this software does not require much knowledge of biology from the users.

Another project has been done for producing a VR visualization experience and they say “The system aims towards a cost-effective, clearly presented and timely accessible system that follows a threefold approach; It entails managing the extensive amount of the daily produced medical data, combining the scattered information related to one patient in one interface with a filtering criteria to the required information, and visualizing in 3D the data from different sources, in order to improve 3D mental mapping, increase productivity and consequently ameliorate quality of service and management.[18]” Medical industries can get more advantages using this system.

There is another project that has been done targeting the crane operators. This says “The proposed system has a function called multimodal display which presents various kinds of operational assistance. We consider the realization of the training system by adaptation of the strength of operational assistance based on operator’s state; we focus on the operator’s skill level.[19]” Someone who likes to be a crane operator can get training using this crane system.

There is another project that has been done regarding cultural heritage assets, and says “our approach for an asset management is described. This includes the system configuration and asset creation method. Finally, we address how to present the virtual heritages. Here, we show two approaches, Web-based and virtual reality theater-based system. We also address the networking issues for transcontinental cultural heritage exchange and our future plan for the 3D cyber museum through the Trans-Eurasia Information Network.[20]” The importance of this project is that any user can easily walk through this virtual museum and see what the cultural heritage assets are.

Another project has been done for E-Learning using 3D technology. They say “This application gives the student the ability to perform all experiments in a certain crucial. The second application is an on-line English language education system. This application gives the students the ability to learn the language audile and visual via on line interactive system. X3D is used as the main implementation tool which give the systems users the full visualization and interactivity of all learning steps.[21]” Through this project, every student can learn the real manner of using a 3D object.

Another project, which has been done regarding a 3D photo Gallery on mobile says “The system will allow users to take pictures with the mobile device and exhibit in the form of virtual 3D gallery and navigate or walk through in the gallery by pressing the button or moving the device. The device has the computational unit which is capable of determining motion data from the g-sensor or accelerometer sensor. The motion data describes the movement of the device including a rotation of the device. Therefore, the benefit of the sensor could be applied such as modifying the view displayed on the screen vertically or horizontally automatically.[22]” This software allows the users to view 3D photos on their mobile devices.

There is a virtual museum project which uses a different approach than the others. It says “conducted indicate that previous experience with ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) did not correlate with perceived AR objects’ presence or VR presence while exposed to a virtual heritage environment. Enjoyment and both AR objects’ presence and VR presence were found to be positively correlated. Therefore, a high level of perceived presence could be closely associated with satisfaction and gratification which contribute towards an appealing experience while interacting with a museum simulation system.[23]” By using this system, every user can walk through whole museum and see all the heritage things.

A project which produces a virtual 3D city says “We present a technique to automatically generalize a given virtual 3D city model consisting of building models, an infrastructure network and optional land coverage data; this technique creates several representations of increasing levels of abstraction. Using the infrastructure network, our technique groups building models and replaces them with cell blocks, while preserving local landmarks.[24]” Using this 3D virtual city system, the users can get some idea about the roads in the city without actually going there.

The Konstructor also expands into Vastu Vidya. According to Vastu Vidya Australia - “Vastu (pronounced with a long a) is a Sanskrit word meaning “the science of structures”. It is a traditional science of architecture that guides the design and construction of buildings in harmony with the laws of nature and the universe. [25] ”

“ProBuilder” is a commercial product which is somewhat similar to Konstructor, but does not have any weight calculation functionalities. This is a brief introduction of ProBuilder - “ProBuilder is a tool for building, editing, and texturing custom meshes right in Unity 3D. It is a fast, intuitive, and dead-simple way to create everything from environment details, to structures, to entire levels. ProBuilder is also great for quickly adding volumes, zones, triggers, occlusion areas, collision boxes and more. Best of all, you can do all this without ever leaving Unity.[4]”


[9] W. E. Larson, S. C. Gupta and R. A. Useche, “Compression of Agricultural Soils”, Soil Science Society of America Journal, pp. 450–457, 1980.

[10] B. Chanclou, A. Luciani, A. Habibi, “Physical models of loose soils dynamically marked by a moving object”, Computer Animation '96. Proceedings, 2011.

[11] J. F. Jensen, “Interactivity. Tracking a new concept in media and communication studies.” Nordicom Re-view, 1998. Available: http://www.organicode.net/jenson.pdf. [Accessed: Feb. 26, 2013].

[12] Cole, R.A, A new approach to spoken language research, Conference Publication, vol.2, pp. 1037– 1040, 1998.

[13] S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, T. Hollerer, A. Webster, A touring machine, Personal Technologies, pp. 208–217.

[14] C. T. Hsieh, C. S. Hu, M. S. Shih, Innovation for Applied Science and Technology, Sientific.net, pp. 2950–2954.

[15] R.R. Mourant, Virtual driving simulator, Conference Publications, pp. 1087–8270, 1997.

[16] Upton, S. Kevin, Weiner, Brian, Tata, Christopher, Virtual Environment with shared video on Demand, research and communities, 2013.

[17] T. Glander, J. Dollner, interactive visualization of virtual 3D city models, Elsevier Ltd, 2009.

[18] L. Tang, C. Chen, J. Zou, Y. Lin, D. Lin, J. Li, “OntoPlant: An integrated virtual plant software package for different scale applications”, 2011 IEEE International Conference on Spatial Data Mining and Geographical Knowledge Services (ICSDM), pp. 308–314, June 29-July 1, 2011.

[19] S. F.M. AlFalah, D. K. Harrison, V. Charissis, Dorothy Evans, “An investigation of a healthcare management system with the use of multimodal interaction and 3D simulation”, Journal of Enterprise Information Management, pp. 183–197, 2013.

[20] M. Yoneda, Interligent Crane System, Conference Publication, pp. 224–229, Sep. 29-Oct. 1, 1997.

[21] Y. Kwon, I. Kim, S. C. Ahn, H. Ko, H. Kim, “Virtual heritage system: modeling, database & presentation”, Seventh International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, 2001. Proceedings, pp. 137–146, 2001.

[22] H.M. Abdul-Kader, E-Learning Systems in Virtual Environment, Conference Publication, 16-18 Dec. 2008, pp. 71–76.

[23] C. Sinthanayothin, N. Wongwean, W. Bholsithi, Interactive virtual 3D gallery, Conference Publications, pp. 120–125, 26-28 Sept. 2011.

[24] S. Sylaiou, K. Mania, A. Karoulis, M. White, virtual museum, Elsevier Ltd, 2010.

[25] Vastu Vidya Australia. Available: http://vastu-vidya-australia.com/about/. [Accessed: Feb. 26, 2013].